This is an anomaly of nature, a persistent congenital or acquired disorder that prevents a person from building interpersonal relationships, adapting to the social environment.
The main difference between personality disorder and mental disorder is that for psychopathy there is stability, absence of flow. Of course, over time, personality traits can undergo certain changes, but there are no such significant changes as in mental illnesses, changes in various spheres of the individual with psychopathy.
Each of us is born with a certain set of individual qualities. Eye color, hair color, body constitution, height - all this is genetically programmed. Similarly, certain traits or anomalies (as in psychopathy) of a character are laid at birth.
Certainly, every person during his life undergoes certain changes, develops, coexisting with other people, being in society. But in general, most of our qualities are already laid down at conception.
If we talk about the causes of psychopathy, then mainly the causes of personality disorders lie in the genes: the baby is already born with certain features, not only appearance, but also characteristic. But there are situations when the development of the anomaly of the character, first of all, is associated with an unfavorable situation. The combination of character traits inherent in a given person with an unfavorable situation helps to fix abnormal behavior, exacerbates maladaptation.
An example of non-standard social situations that worsen the course of personality disorder may be staying in an orphanage, in prison.
So, in most cases, as always, in all problems in life, in relationships with other people, the Mother Nature is to blame, which created the person as he is.
Psychopathy can have a variety of symptoms. Hysterical fits, hand wringing, tears and a demonstrative fall to the floor - these manifestations are characterized by hysterical psychopathy. Extreme isolation, lack of strong ties with family and colleagues, introversion - these manifestations are also characteristic of schizoid personality disorder. Another extreme is the lack of persistent interests, increased suggestibility, underdevelopment of strong-willed qualities and lack of own point of view. These symptoms are inherent in dissocial personality disorder. Thus, the symptoms of psychopathy can be diverse. What common features unite personality disorders?
The following diagnostic criteria for psychopathies (general symptoms for all personality disorders) are distinguished:
The first criterion is relative stability and low reversibility of pathological traits. In contrast to mental illness, signs of personality disorders change little with time. Certainly, during the adolescent period, the behavior of the psychopath may undergo some changes, but in general, the leading signs by which a person can be diagnosed with a certain psychopathy persist throughout life. For someone, there is an irresistible desire to attract attention, while the other fences itself away from the people around them with an invisible veil.
The second criterion is the totality of the psychopathic personality traits. Psychopaths are everywhere a psychopath: at work, and in the family, and on the street, and in public transport. He simply can not behave differently with people, is not capable of other behavior. The existing pathology affects the core of the personality, so abnormal behavior extends to all areas of life.
The third criterion is a violation of social, family and professional adaptation. People with such a disorder are incredibly difficult, it is almost impossible to adapt to existing norms. Psychopaths say that they "do not live by themselves and do not give life to others". Although there are some exceptions in terms of professional adaptation. If you choose the right profession, then a person can become successful at work. For example, hysterical psychopathy is characterized by the desire to draw attention to one's personality. If such a person goes to the theatrical field, which is full of spectators, then he can realize his inner potential.
The accentuation of character is a variant of the norm in which certain traits of character are excessively strengthened, as a result of which it is possible to detect selective vulnerability in relation to certain psychological influences, while other influences retain normal stability.
Accentuation is manifested only under certain conditions, for example, under the influence of mental trauma. But in general, it does not lead to social disadaptation of such a person.
Once again I want to emphasize that the accentuation of character - a variant of the norm in contrast to psychopathy - the borderline between health and mental disorder.
For each individual personality disorder, their characteristic symptoms are characteristic. Depending on the main manifestations of the following types of psychopathy: