Organic brain damage

Diseases of this section have a diverse nature and different mechanisms of development. They are characterized by a variety of options for psychopathic or neurotic disorders. A wide range of clinical manifestations is explained by the different size of the lesion, the area of ​​the defect, and also the basic individual and personal qualities of the person. The greater the depth of destruction, the clearer is the insufficiency, which most often consists in changing the function of thinking.

Why do organic lesions develop?

The reasons for the occurrence of organic damage to the central nervous system include:

  • Peri-and intranatal pathology (brain damage during pregnancy and childbirth).
  • Craniocerebral trauma (open and closed).
  • Infectious diseases (meningitis, encephalitis, arachnoiditis, abscess).
  • Intoxication (abuse of alcohol, drugs, tobacco).
  • Vascular diseases of the brain (ischemic and hemorrhagic strokes, encephalopathy) and neoplasms (tumors).
  • Demyelinating diseases (multiple sclerosis).
  • Neurodegenerative diseases (Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's).
  • A huge number of cases of the development of organic brain damage is due to the patient's own fault (because of acute or chronic intoxication, craniocerebral trauma, incorrectly treated infectious diseases, etc.)

Let us consider in more detail each cause of CNS damage.

Peri-and intranatal pathology

There are several critical moments during pregnancy and childbirth, when even the most insignificant effect on the mother's body can affect the health of the child. Oxygen starvation of the fetus (asphyxia), prolonged labor, premature placental abruption, a decrease in the tone of the uterus and other causes can cause irreversible changes in the cells of the fetal brain.

Sometimes these changes lead to the early death of a child to 5-15 years of age. If you manage to save your life, then such children become disabled from an early age. Almost always the above listed violations are accompanied by varying degrees of manifestation of the disharmony of the psychic sphere. With a reduced mental capacity, the positive character traits are not always sharpened.

Mental disorders in children can manifest themselves:

  • In the preschool age: in the form of delay in the development of speech, motor disinhibition, poor sleep, lack of interest, rapid change of mood, lethargy;
  • In the school period: in the form of emotional instability, incontinence, sexual disinhibition, disruption of cognitive processes.

Craniocerebral trauma

Craniocerebral injury (TBI) is a traumatic injury of the skull, soft tissues of the head and brain. The causes of ITC are most often car accidents and household injuries. Craniocerebral trauma is open and closed. If there is an external environment message with the cranial cavity, it is an open injury, if not - closed. The clinic has neurological and psychiatric disorders. Neurological disorders are limited limb movement, speech and consciousness, the occurrence of epileptic seizures, lesions of the cranial nerves.

Mental disorders include cognitive impairment and behavioral disorders. Cognitive impairments are manifested by a violation of the ability to mentally perceive and process information received from outside. The clarity of thinking and logic suffer, memory is lost, the ability to learn, make decisions and plan ahead is lost. Violations of behavior are manifested in the form of aggression, slowing down the reaction, fears, sudden changes in mood, disorganization and asthenia.

Infectious diseases of the central nervous system

The spectrum of infectious agents causing brain damage is quite large. The main among them are: Coxsackie virus, ECHO, herpetic infection, staphylococcus aureus. All of them can lead to the development of meningitis, encephalitis, arachnoiditis. Also, lesions of the central nervous system are observed in HIV infection at its last stages, most often in the form of cerebral abscesses and leukoencephalopathies.

Mental disorders in infectious pathology are manifested as:

  • Asthenic syndrome - general weakness, increased fatigue, decreased efficiency;
  • Psychological disorganization;
  • Affective disorders;
  • Personality disorders;
  • Obsessive-convulsive disorders;
  • Hysterical, hypochondriacal and paranoid psychoses.
  • Intoxication

To the intoxication of the body lead the use of alcohol, drugs, tobacco smoking, poisoning with fungi, carbon monoxide, heavy metal salts and various medications. Clinical manifestations are characterized by a variety of symptoms, depending on the specific poison agent. Possible development of nonpsychotic disorders, neurosis-like disorders and psychoses.

Acute intoxication during poisoning with atropine, dimedrol, antidepressants, carbon monoxide or fungi is most often manifested by delirium. When poisoning with psychostimulants there is an intoxicating paranoid, which is characterized by bright visual, tactile and auditory hallucinations, as well as delusions. Perhaps the development of a manic-like state, which is characterized by all the signs of manic syndrome: euphoria, motor and sexual disinhibition, acceleration of thinking.

Chronic intoxications (alcohol, tobacco, drugs) are manifested:

  • Neurosis-like syndrome - the phenomenon of exhaustion, lethargy, decreased performance with hypochondria and depressive disorders;
  • Cognitive impairment (impaired memory, attention, decreased intelligence).

Vascular diseases of the brain and neoplasms

Vascular diseases of the brain include hemorrhagic and ischemic strokes, as well as discirculatory encephalopathy. Hemorrhagic strokes occur as a result of rupture of cerebral aneurysms or impregnation of blood through the walls of blood vessels, forming hematomas. Ischemic stroke is characterized by the development of the focus, which receives less oxygen and nutrients due to blockage of the feeding vessel with a thrombus or an atherosclerotic plaque.

Dyscirculatory encephalopathy develops with chronic hypoxia (lack of oxygen) and is characterized by the formation of many small foci in the entire brain. Tumors in the brain arise from a variety of causes, including genetic predisposition, ionizing radiation and the effects of chemicals. Doctors discuss the impact of cellular phones, bruises and injuries in the head.

Mental disorders in vascular pathology and neoplasms depend on the location of the focus. Most often, they occur when the right hemisphere is affected and manifest as:

  • Cognitive impairments (to mask this phenomenon, patients start using notebooks, tying the nodules "in memory");
  • Reduce criticism of their condition;
  • Night "states of confusion";
  • Depression;
  • Insomnia (sleep disturbance);
  • Asthenic syndrome;
  • Aggressive behavior.

Vascular dementia

Separately, we should talk about vascular dementia. It is divided into various types: related to stroke (multi-infarct dementia, dementia due to heart attacks in the "strategic" areas, dementia after hemorrhagic stroke), unsanitary (macro- and microangiopathic), and variants caused by disorders of the cerebral blood supply.

For patients with this pathology, retardation, rigidity of all mental processes and their lability, narrowing of the range of interests are characteristic. The degree of severity of cognitive impairment in cerebral vascular disease is determined by a number of up to the end of unexplored factors, including the age of patients.

Demyelinating diseases

The main disease in this nosology is multiple sclerosis. It is characterized by the formation of foci with a destroyed envelope of nerve endings (myelin).

Mental disorders in this pathology:

  • Asthenic syndrome (general weakness, increased fatigue, decreased efficiency);
  • Cognitive impairment (impaired memory, attention, decreased intelligence);
  • depression;
  • affective insanity.
  • Neurodegenerative diseases

These include: Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease. For these pathologies, the appearance of the disease in the elderly is characteristic.

The most frequent psychiatric disorder in Parkinson's disease (BP) is depression. Its main symptoms are a feeling of emptiness and hopelessness, emotional poverty, a decrease in feelings of joy and pleasure (anhedonia). Typical manifestations are also dysphoric symptoms (irritability, sadness, pessimism). Depression is often combined with anxiety disorders. Thus, anxiety symptoms are detected in 60-75% of patients.

Alzheimer's disease is a degenerative disease of the central nervous system, which is characterized by progressive lowering of cognitive functions, a violation of personality structure and behavioral changes. Patients with this pathology are forgetful, can not recall recent events, are unable to recognize familiar objects. They are characterized by emotional disorders, depression, anxiety, disorientation, indifference to the world around them.