Cerebrovascular diseases

Medical statistics are extremely accurate, and errors here are rare. Therefore, it can be called proven, but on the no less pleasant fact that in recent years the number of patients who were diagnosed with "cerebrovascular disease" has grown significantly. It is all the more sad that among the athletes - seemingly the healthiest group of the population - the death rate from acute violations of the brain vessels is firmly held in second place after coronary heart disease.

Cerebrovascular disease, or VCB, is a disease that causes the pathology of the cerebral vessels and, as a consequence, impaired cerebral circulation. Usually, the central nervous system develops against the background of atherosclerosis and hypertension. The disease is extremely dangerous, first of all, because very often its final stage is a stroke - an acute violation of the blood circulation of the brain, leading to death or disability.

There are acute and chronic types of cerebrovascular diseases. The acute include:

  • Acute hypertensive encephalopathy;
  • Transistor ischemic attack;
  • Hemorrhagic or ischemic stroke.

The chronic form of cerebrovascular disease is discircular encephalopathy, which, in turn, is divided into types:

  • Cerebral thrombosis. Narrowing and clogging of blood vessels with clots or plaques;
  • Cerebral embolism. Clogging of blood vessels with clots formed in larger arteries (for example, in the heart) and those with blood flow to the small ones;
  • Cerebral bleeding. Vascular rupture in the brain, which is the cause of hemorrhagic stroke.
  • Dyscircular encephalopathy can develop gradually, and then move into the acute form of the central nervous system.

Causes of the disease

The main factor in the occurrence of cerebrovascular disorders is, as we have already mentioned, atherosclerosis of the brain vessels. Also, to a lesser extent, DVB can occur due to inflammatory vascular disease.

Concomitant causes that can cause and aggravate the disease:

  • diabetes;
  • gout;
  • Inflammatory diseases;
  • Excess weight;
  • Osteochondrosis of the cervical spine;
  • Various pathologies of cardiac activity;
  • Smoking and excessive drinking.
  • Symptoms of cerebrovascular disorders

The primary symptoms of the DVB usually go unnoticed, since they can be attributed to normal fatigue and fatigue. Agree, very few people will come to mind to see a doctor for headaches, minor violations of sleep, increased fatigue and reduced efficiency? As the cerebrovascular insufficiency develops, the symptoms become more vivid: severe pains are often mistaken for migraines, intellectual activity disorders, insomnia, dizziness, tinnitus, increased irritability, loss of limb sensitivity. For the next stage of the manifestation of the disease, fainting, depression, and temporary visual impairments are characteristic.

If the patient does not go to the hospital for examination and medical help, the DVCR, in the absence of treatment, leads to transistor ischemic attacks and stroke.

The consequences of cerebrovascular pathology

Not always, although very often, cerebrovascular disorders lead to a stroke. Other consequences of chronic disorders can be serious violations of cognitive activity: memory impairment, mental activity, spatial orientation up to vascular dementia (in 5-15% of cases). Possible reduction of coordination: shaky gait, uncertainty and lack of control of movements. Also, patients can develop Binswanger's disease (subcortical atherosclerotic encephalopathy), which is characterized by gradual dementia, loss of ability to self-service at home, dysarthria and even epileptic seizures.

Treatment

To avoid the development of the disease, it is necessary to undergo the examination if symptoms of the first stage appear. Most often, computer and magnetic resonance imaging, ultrasound of vessels, encephalography, and contrast X-rays are used to detect the disease. When diagnosing "DVB" and identifying the nature and extent of violations, the patient is prescribed a course of therapy.

The essence of the treatment, in the first place, is to restore the normal blood supply to the vessels of the brain, that is, to expand the vessels. Therefore, the patient is prescribed antiplatelet agents (aspirin) and vasodilator drugs (mefakor, papaverine). Also, nootropic drugs are used to improve memory and cognitive functions. In severe forms and acute cerebrovascular insufficiency, the method of angioplasty (mechanical expansion of the vessel with a catheter with a balloon) and endarterectomy (removal of blood clots), stenting of the artery is used.

Also in the treatment complex includes measures to normalize and support blood pressure, getting rid of excess weight. During the rehabilitation period, physiotherapy procedures, exercise therapy, exercises with a speech therapist and a psychologist for restoring speech and cognitive functions are shown (if such a need exists).

If the patient has a cerebrovascular stroke, the treatment will be much longer and more difficult.

Prevention of disease

To prevent the development of cerebrovascular disease of the brain, one should try to adhere to the hypocholesterol diet (exclude fried, pickled, salted, smoked foods, fatty meat, etc.), take measures to get rid of excess weight, bad habits, in particular, smoking. It is also necessary to constantly monitor blood pressure. Athletes do not need to be reminded that it is worthwhile to lead an active lifestyle, on the contrary, it is worth drawing their attention to the fact that excessive loads should not be allowed.

After 45-50 years, it is necessary to undergo annual prophylactic examinations, since in the older and older age the risk of occurrence of a DVB increases. During the outpatient examination, concomitant diseases can be identified that can cause chronic cerebrovascular insufficiency, and their timely treatment will help to maintain a healthy state of the brain vessels.